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Poverty Measurement in Indonesia (using West Java as a case study)

28 April 2018

Incorporating the Delphi Method in Poverty Measurement, a Case Study of Bogor City, West Java


Putu Geniki L Natih, MPhil Development Trinity College
D.Phil (candidate 2018) in Social Policy Oxford University

This empirical paper aims to illustrate how the Delphi method can be utilised to achieve a reliable level of consensus with regard to which dimension and indicators to be included within a measure of poverty, using Bogor City, West Java as a case study area. As Townsend (1979) states, even though poverty is ‘relative’, there needs to be at least some level of consensus with regard to the ‘living conditions and amenities’ considered as ‘customary’ within a society, to enable evaluation of whether a household or a person falls short from these customs. With this in mind, a Delphi survey was conducted during July-August 2016 with policy makers from the Bogor City Government, West Java, Indonesia. The aim of the survey was to discover relevant dimensions, indicators of poverty and their respective weights, fit to be included within a quantitative measure of poverty that will enable policy makers to map critical areas of concern with regard to poverty alleviation in Bogor City, West Java, Indonesia. A total of 36 policy makers from the Bogor City Government took part in a two-day Delphi study. On the first day, pre-existing indicators of poverty as collected within the SUSENAS 2013 (National Socio-Economic Survey) were clustered into relevant dimensions using an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method. Results from this clustering exercise were then fed into the iterative Delphi questionnaire conducted on Day 2. On the second day, a three-round Delphi was conducted, where participants were requested to select relevant dimensions and their respective indicators, before assigning weights to these dimensions and indicators to reflect their relative importance. Convergence analysis was conducted of the Delphi results to determine whether a reliable level of consensus is evident. Following Dietz (1987), Round 3 results were utilised as the final results of the Delphi study. Within these final results, five dimensions of poverty were considered important; with education considered as the most important dimension, followed by safety and health, asset ownership and employment, environment and adequate living arrangements, and family planning.


1. Prof.Dr. Subroto

  • Menteri Transmigrasi dan Koperasi R.I (11 September 1971 - 28 Maret 1973).
  • Menteri Tenaga Kerja, Transmigrasi, dan Koperasi R.I (28 Maret 1973 - 29 Maret 1978)
  • Menteri Pertambangan dan Energi R.I selama dua periode kabinet (29 Maret 1978 - 21 Maret 1988).
  • Presiden Konferensi OPEC (31 Oktober 1984–9 Desember)
  • Sekretaris Jenderal OPEC di Wina, Austria (1988)
  • Pendiri Yayasan Bina Anak Indonesia (YBAI) bersama Rizal Sikumbang.

2. Dr. Moh Chatib Basri

  • Menteri Keuangan R.I (21 Mei 2013- 20 Oktober 2014)
  • Kepala BKPM (14 Juni 2012-1 Oktober 2013)
  • Komisaris Independen PT Astra International Tbk., PT Indika Energy Tbk. and PT XL Axiata Tbk. (present)
  • Co-Founder and Senior Partner CReco Research Institute
  • Deputy Minister of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia for G-20, 2006-2010
  • Special Adviser to the Minister of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia, 2006 – 2010
  • Prudential Life Assurance - Advisor, 2017 - Present
  • Department of Economics University of Indonesia - Senior Lecturer, 1992 – present
  • Ph.D in Economics (Australian National University), Bachelor in Economics (University of Indonesia)

3. Dr.Ulil Abshar Abdhalla

  • Graduated with bachelor's degree in Sharia faculty in LIPIA (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Islam dan Arab - Islamic and Arabic Knowledge Institute) in Jakarta.
  • Also educated in Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Driyarkara (Driyarkara School of Philosophy).
  • Held a position as chairman of Nahdlatul Ulama's Lakpesdam (Lembaga Kajian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia - Human Resources Research and Development Centre).
  • As a researcher in ISAI (Institut Studi Arus Informasi), Jakarta.
  • As Program Director in Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP).
  • After completing his master's degree in religion at Boston University he went on and continued his PhD studies in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University.

4. Dr. Bima Arya Sugiarto

  • Wali Kota Bogor (2014-present)
  • Lecturer and researcher, Department of International Relations, Paramadina University Jakarta
  • Lecturer, Paramadina Graduate Schools of Communication
  • Founder and Commissioner of Charta Politika Indonesia
  • D.Phil in Political Science & International Relations from The Australian National University, MA in Development Studies from Monash University, BA in International Relation from Parahyangan University

5. Henry C Widjaya

  • Chairman of Yayasan Dharma Bhakti Astra (YDBA), a foundation of Astra International.
  • He has worked extensively on such issues as entrepreneurship, Small Medium Entreprises (SMEs), start-ups, and social movements.
  • In his involvement in YDBA, he has helped support 8.646 SMEs and provide training to 552 youth school dropouts (pemuda putus sekolah) to become mechanics.
  • Bapak Henry is a great photographer and is inspired by photos and poems.
  • He has also published a book called "Celebrating The Moment", a compilation of PhotoPoems in Black & White.

6. Harianto Santosa

  • General Manager Litbang Kompas (2009-present)

7. Dr. Maria Monica Wihardja

  • Senior advisor to the Deputy of Strategic Economic Issues, The Executive Office of the  President of the Republic of Indonesia (December 2016-present)
  • Extended-Term Consultant, the Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice, with affiliation to the Poverty Global Practice, World Bank Office Jakarta(September 2013-September 2015)
  • Short-term Consultant, World Bank Office Jakarta (March-June2013)
  • Full-time Researcher and Associate Fellow, Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Jakarta, Indonesia (September 2009 - July 2013)
  • Full-time Consultant, Bank Indonesia (January 9, 2012-July 9, 2012)
  • Consultancy Services (2011-2013), for ASEAN and ERIA, Ministry of Finance of Indonesia, Presidential Working Unit for Development Supervision and Control (UKP4) and Asian Development Bank Institute

8. Jonathan Chang

  • Commissioner of PT Astra International Tbk (May 2010-January 1, 2018)
  • Country Chairman Jardine Matheson Ltd. in Indonesia (2009-present)
  • Country Head Chairman of PT UBS Securities Indonesia (2004-2009)
  • Indonesian Country Head of JP Morgan (2000-2004)
  • Indonesian Country Head of Jardine Fleming (until 2000)
  • Certified Public Accountant.



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